Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region



Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):
Meloidogyne spp.

Pest category:

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Yes: Ornamental sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
Not relevant

  • Candidate: Ornamental sector
Justification (if necessary):
Root-knot nematode (M. exigua, M. naasi, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica, M. ethiopica) (EPPO Global Database, Kotcon et al., 1985; Davis et al., 2003; CABI, 2017) are polyphagous pests. They all cause characteristic knots (galls), swellings and other malformations on the roots of onion. M. ethiopica is included in EPPO alert list ( (EPPO website). These species cause similar symptoms on the host and they are all present in the EU. Distinction among them can be difficult. Including all the species in the genus would make for practical application and avoid the need for full identification to species of any root-knot nematodes found in the material to be eventually marketed.
Remark: In the RNQP Questionnaire, for the 'Vegetable propagating and planting material (other than seeds)' Sector, GB supported a listing at the Genus level for Allium cepa but did not support such a listing for Cucumis melo, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum melongena (no justification was given, and no information for the other host plants). No other EU Member States selected this entry as an important entry in the RNQP Questionnaire.
For the 'Ornamental' Sector, no country supported a listing of the entire genus. However SE suggested to define specific Risk management measures for this entry on Citrus, Prunus and Rosa. Experts commented that for ornamentals, the principal risk is linked to M. hapla.

2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:


Justification (if necessary):
The pest is present worldwide.

HOST PLANT N°1: Citrus (1CIDG) for the Ornamental sector.

Origin of the listing:
Commission Directive 93/49/EEC

Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
Evaluation continues

4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):
Not candidate

Meloidogyne spp. is a soil borne pest. It survives in weeds and in the crop debris. It spreads with infested materials, by human assisted means, root debris and soil. Meloidogyne exigua can infest Citrus as a minor host (EPPO Global Database) however no Meloidogyne species are mentioned in the EPPO PP 2 or PM 4 Standards for Citrus or for Citrus certified or CAC requirements in 2014/98/EU. Meloidogyne citri n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a new root-knot nematode has been found parasitizing citrus in China (Zhang et al, 1990). However experts considered that Ornamental Citrus are usually grown in containers and are therefore not a pathway.

Disqualified: Not recommended for RNQP status because Ornamental Citrus are usually grown in containers and plants for planting is therefore not a significant pathway.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:

  • Zhang SS, Gao RX & Weng ZM (1990) Meloidogyne citri n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a new root-knot nematode parasitizing citrus in China. Journal of Fujian Agricultural College 19, 305-311;