Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region



Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):

Pest category:

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Not relevant: Ornamental sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
Not relevant

  • Candidate: Ornamental sector
2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:

List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Austria (2011); Belgium (2013); Bulgaria (2003); Croatia (2008); Cyprus (2011); Czech Republic (1994); France (2010); France/Corse (1998); Germany (1993); Greece (2013); Greece/Kriti (1994); Hungary (1993); Italy (1994); Italy/Sicilia (2008); Italy/Sardegna (1994); Malta (2012); Netherlands (2015); Poland (1992); Portugal (2008); Portugal/Madeira (2008); Spain (2015); Spain/Islas Canárias (2012); Spain/Islas Baleares (2011); Sweden (1998); United Kingdom (2010); United Kingdom/England (2009)


Justification (if necessary):
Only non-European populations of Bemisia tabaci are listed in annex IA1 of Council directive 2000/29/EC. Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database ( Experts commented that 'non-European populations' is usually only considered in relation to the origin of the plants/consignment on which the pest is found.

HOST PLANT N°1: Dianthus caryophyllus (DINCA) for the Ornamental sector.

Origin of the listing:
Commission Directive 93/49/EEC

Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting, other than seeds

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
Evaluation continues

4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):
Not candidate

Bemisia tabaci (European populations) is not listed on this host (EPPO Global Database) and is only given as an unconfirmed host (EFSA, 2013), though there is three references where it occurs on carnation (Beitia et al, 2016; DAF-GWA, 2008; Evans, 2007). Dianthus is not mentioned in Fransen (1994) as an important host plant in Dutch greenhouse as well as in De Barro (1995) and Li et al. (2011). Only two interceptions of B. tabaci on Dianthus plants for planting from third countries are reported in EUROPHYT from 1993 to 2011. Experts concluded that plants for planting of carnation are not a significant pathway, even though it may incidentally be a pathway for 'hitch-hikers'.

Disqualified: Not recommended for RNQP status - not a significant pathway for this host.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:

  • Beitia F, Asís JD, Pedro L de, Goula M & Tormos J (2016) Importance of feeding behaviour on life cycle in the zoophytophagous bug Dicyphus geniculatus. Bulletin of Insectology 69, 173-180;
  • Department of Agriculture and Food, Goverment of Western Australia (DAF-GWA) (2008) A list of recorded host plants of Bemisia tabaci including silverleaf whitefly. Previously available at;
  • De Barro PJ (1995) Bemisia tabaci biotype B: a review of its biology, distribution and control. CSIRO Australia Division of Entomology Technical Paper. 1-55;
  • Drayton GM, Teulon DAJ, Workman PJ & Scott IAW (2009) The Christmas dispersal of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in New Zealand. New Zeland Plant Protection 62, 310-314;
  • EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2013) (PLH) Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal 11, 3162. Available online:;
  • European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) (2012) EPPO technical document no. 1061: EPPO study on the risk of imports of plants for planting. Available from;
  • Evans GA (2007) Host plant list of the whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) of the world. USDA/Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 290 pp. Available from;
  • Fransen JJ (1994) Bemisia tabaci in the Netherlands; here to stay? Pesticide Science, 42, 129-134;
  • Li SJ, Xue X, Ahmed MZ, Ren SX, Du YZ, Wu JH, Cuthbertson AGS & Qiu BL (2011) Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science 18, 101-120;