NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Bemisia tabaci (BEMITA)
GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PEST
Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):
1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:
Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?
Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:
Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
- Not relevant: Ornamental sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
- Candidate: Ornamental sector
2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?
Presence in the EU:
List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Austria (2011); Belgium (2013); Bulgaria (2003); Croatia (2008); Cyprus (2011); Czech Republic (1994); France (2010); France/Corse (1998); Germany (1993); Greece (2013); Greece/Kriti (1994); Hungary (1993); Italy (1994); Italy/Sicilia (2008); Italy/Sardegna (1994); Malta (2012); Netherlands (2015); Poland (1992); Portugal (2008); Portugal/Madeira (2008); Spain (2015); Spain/Islas Canárias (2012); Spain/Islas Baleares (2011); Sweden (1998); United Kingdom (2010); United Kingdom/England (2009)
Justification (if necessary):
Only non-European populations of Bemisia tabaci are listed in annex IA1 of Council directive 2000/29/EC. Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database (https://gd.eppo.int/). Experts commented that 'non-European populations' is usually only considered in relation to the origin of the plants/consignment on which the pest is found.
HOST PLANT N°1: Begonia x hiemalis (BEGEH) for the Ornamental sector.
Origin of the listing:
Commission Directive 93/49/EEC
Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting, other than seeds
3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):
Begonias are perennials and are propagated from cuttings. The host range of B. tabaci covers more than 1 000 species (Mound & Halsey, 1978; De Barro, 1995; Chu et al., 2006; Evans, 2007; Li et al. 2011; EFSA, 2013). There are some inconsistencies in various publications on the suitability of different Begonia species as being B. tabaci host plants. Bemisia tabaci is not listed on Begonia x hiemalis (EPPO Global Database; EFSA, 2013) though Begonia ravenii and B. semperflorens are listed as hosts (EFSA, 2013). In the unconfirmed host plants of EFSA (2013), compiled from DAF-GWA (2008) and Evans (2007), Begonia sp. is not included, although it is in the DAF-GWA (2008) table. Fransen (1994) reported 3 to 7 annual findings of B. tabaci on Begonia in the greenhouses in the Netherlands and concluded that this is perfect host plant for the pest. The infestation rate (nymphs and pupae density) of host plants of B. tabaci was categorized in four grades in China (Li et al., 2011). Begonia ravenii and Begonia semperflorens were classified in the 1st infestation grade (average number of B. tabaci nymphs and pupae ≤ 10/10 cm² leaf area). Dalmon et al. (2008) sampled B. tabaci greenhouse populations in southern France from begonia (Begonia x elatior= Begonia x hiemalis). Ornamental trade (mainly Poinsettia and Begonia spp.) is the main pathway of introduction and spread of Bemisia tabaci Mediterraneann species (MED, formerly referred to as biotype Q) to ornamental and vegetable greenhouses and to open fields in Brazil (Moraes et al., 2017). Six interceptions of B. tabaci on Begonia plant for plantings from the EU Member States have been reported in the EUROPHYT database from 1993 to 2011. Genus Begonia is included in De Barro (1995) ornamental host plant list. Experts concluded that plants for planting of Begonia x hiemalis are not a significant pathway, even though it may incidentally be a pathway for 'hitch-hikers'.
CONCLUSION ON THE STATUS:
Disqualified: Not recommended for RNQP status - not a significant pathway for this host.
8 - Tolerance level:
Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:
Proposed Tolerance levels:
9 - Risk management measures:
Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:
Proposed Risk management measure:
- Department of Agriculture and Food, Goverment of Western Australia (DAF-GWA) (2008) A list of recorded host plants of Bemisia tabaci including silverleaf whitefly. Previously available at http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/pw/ins/slwfhostlist.pdf;
- Dalmon A, Halkett F, Granier M, Delatte H & Peterschmitt M (2008) Genetic structure of the invasive pest Bemisia tabaci: evidence of limited but persistent genetic differentiation in glasshouse populations. Heredity 100, 316–325;
- De Barro PJ (1995) Bemisia tabaci biotype B: a review of its biology, distribution and control. CSIRO Australia Division of Entomology Technical Paper. 1-55;
- De Barro PJ & Ahmed MZ (2011) Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions. PloS ONE, 6, e25579. Available from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0025579;
- EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2013) (PLH) Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal 11, 3162. Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3162/epdf;
- European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) (2012) EPPO technical document no. 1061: EPPO study on the risk of imports of plants for planting. Available from www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/EPPO_Study_on_Plants_for_planting.pdf;
- Evans GA (2007) Host plant list of the whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) of the world. USDA/Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 290 pp. Available from http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov:8080/1WF/WhiteflyHost.pdf;
- Fransen JJ (1994) Bemisia tabaci in the Netherlands; here to stay? Pesticide Science 42, 129-134;
- Li SJ, Xue X, Ahmed MZ, Ren SX, Du YZ, Wu JH, Cuthbertson AGS & Qiu BL (2011) Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science 18, 101-120;
- Moraes LA, Marubayashi, Yuli VA, Ghanim M, Bello VH, De Marchi BR, Barbosa LF, Ramos-Sobrinho R, Boykin L, Krause-Sakate R & Pavan MA (2017) New invasion of Bemisia tabaci Mediterraneann species in in Brazil associated to ornamental plants. Phytoparasitica, 1-9;
- Mound LA & Halsey SH (1978) Whitefly of the World. A Systematic Catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with Host Plant and Natural Enemy Data. British Museum (Natural History) and Chichester, Wiley, London, UK, 340 pp;