Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region

NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Frankliniella occidentalis (FRANOC)


Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):

Pest category:

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Not relevant: Vegetable propagating and planting material (other than seeds) sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
Not relevant

  • Candidate: Vegetable propagating and planting material (other than seeds) sector
Justification (if necessary):
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera, Thripidae) is clearly a single taxonomic entity and can be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank.

2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:

List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Austria (1993); Belgium (2014); Bulgaria (2012); Croatia (2011); Cyprus (1993); Czech Republic (2011); Denmark (2015); Estonia (2011); Finland (2015); France (2011); Germany (2011); Greece (2008); Greece/Kriti (1994); Hungary (1998); Ireland (1993); Italy (1999); Italy/Sicilia (1994); Italy/Sardegna (2012); Latvia (2011); Lithuania (2004); Malta (2011); Netherlands (1993); Poland (1992); Portugal (2011); Portugal/Azores (2005); Portugal/Madeira (2008); Romania (2011); Slovakia (2011); Slovenia (2011); Spain (2016); Spain/Islas Canárias (1994); Spain/Islas Baleares (1999); Sweden (2015); United Kingdom (2011); United Kingdom/England (1994); United Kingdom/Scotland (1994); United Kingdom/Channel Islands (1999)


Justification (if necessary):
Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database (

HOST PLANT N°1: Citrullus lanatus (CITLA) for the Vegetable propagating and planting material (other than seeds) sector.

Origin of the listing:
2 - Vegetable seedling sector: Commission Directive 93/61/EC

Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
Evaluation continues

4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):
Not candidate

F. occidentalis is highly polyphagous and has been reported from over 240 plant species in 61 families including important crop plants such as ornamentals, vegetables and fruits (Yudin et al., 1986; Jones, 2005). It affects the foliage and flowers of numerous economically important crops. EPPO (2012) conducted a detailed analysis of the information on trade in plants for planting provided by the Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy for the period 2006–2010. For the studied period F. occidentalis was intercepted 27 times on consignments of plants for planting. Most interceptions were on cuttings or pot plants but thrips were also found on fruits, cut flowers and vegetables. Viruliferous thrips are being transported in living planting material and will survive transport and storage as long as their hosts remain alive (EFSA-PLH, 2012). It is difficult to distinguish between long-distance spread by wind and human-assisted means of dispersal. Short-distance spread of viruliferous thrips by natural means within and between adjacent greenhouses, orchards and other places of production is likely to occur (EFSA-PLH, 2012). As a consequence, plants for planting are not considered to be the main pathway in area where the pest is present.

Disqualified: Plants for planting are not considered to be the main pathway. However, regarding the need to protect the crop from specific virus infections (e.g. TSWV), specific risk management measures on F. occidentalis may be directly proposed in the appropriate EU Marketing Directive.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:

  • CABI (Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International) (2016). Datasheets Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips). Invasive species compendium. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Available online at;
  • EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (2012) Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. EFSA Journal 2012;10(12):3029. [64 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.3029. Available online:;
  • EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) (2012) EPPO technical document no. 1061: EPPO study on the risk of imports of plants for planting. Available from;
  • Jones DR (2005) Plant viruses transmitted by thrips. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 113, 119-157;
  • Yudin LS, Cho JJ & Mitchell WC (1986) Host range of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), with special reference to Leucaena glauca. Environmental Entomology, 15, 1292-1295;