NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Pectinophora gossypiella (Platyedra gossypiella) (PECTGO)
GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PEST
Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):
1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:
Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?
Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:
Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
- Not relevant: Oil and fibre plants sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
- Candidate: Oil and fibre plants sector
2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?
Presence in the EU:
List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Cyprus (1993); Denmark (2013); Greece (1990); Italy (1990); Italy/Sicilia (1990); Romania (1990); Spain (2012)
Justification (if necessary):
Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database (https://gd.eppo.int/).
HOST PLANT N°1: Gossypium sp. (GOSSS) for the Oil and fibre plants sector.
Origin of the listing:
3 - Oil and fibre plants sector: Council Directive 2002/57/EC
Plants for planting:
3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):
Cotton is one of the 12 hosts listed for this pest. The life cycle does not normally include a stage which includes infestation of pure seeds, except in some cases where under cool dry conditions larvae may undergo diapause in a small cocoon contaminating stored seed. Normally eggs are deposited on or near the cotton bolls at the time of flowering, larvae emerge, entering the cotton bolls where they feed internally. After this they emerge from the boll and pupate in the ground, and adults emerge after about 9 days. Under optimal conditions, the entire life cycle is completed in 25-31 days and there may be a number of generations per year (CABI, 2016). There appears to be no information in the literature on the levels of infestation found in processed seed stocks. However it was suggested that the pink bollworm may have been introduced into Australia and other areas in the early 20th Century in cotton seed (Henneberry & Naranjo 1998), though for well cleaned commercial seed and treated seed containing larvae in cocoons this would appear unlikely. Control methods advised (short-season and resistant cultivars, not forcing regrowth and a second flowering cycle, crop rotation, weed control of other hosts, trap crops and recommendations for harvesting and dealing with crop debris) are reducing the risk of infestation by other pathways in areas where the pest is found (CABI, 2016). As it would be very difficult for the grower to carry out all the preventative control work needed on his and neighbours farms, plants for planting are not considered to be the main pathway for the pest/host/intended combination for this pest in areas where the pest occurs.
CONCLUSION ON THE STATUS:
Disqualified: cotton seeds are not considered to be a significant pathway compared to other pathways.
8 - Tolerance level:
Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:
Proposed Tolerance levels:
9 - Risk management measures:
Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:
Proposed Risk management measure:
- CABI (Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International), online, 2016. Datasheets Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm). Invasive species compendium. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Available from CABI 2016 http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/39417;
- Henneberry T & Naranjo SE (1998) Integrated management approaches for pink bollworm in the southwestern United States. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 3, 31±52;