Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region

NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Ditylenchus dipsaci (DITYDI)


Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):

Pest category:

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Not relevant: Fodder plant seed sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
Not relevant

  • Candidate: Fodder plant seed sector
Justification (if necessary):
Remark for ornamentals:
- Allium: There is a large number of Allium species (and within the species, varieties) that are used as ornamentals.
Therefore it is suggested to include all Allium for ornamental use in the present evaluation.
- Ismene (host plant for D. dipsaci as mentioned in Directive 2000/29/EC) is nowadays named Hymenocallis for cultivated ornamental species and varieties.

2 ā€“ Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:

List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Austria (1993); Belgium (2007); Bulgaria (1993); Croatia (1996); Cyprus (1993); Czech Republic (1994); Denmark (1993); Estonia (1994); Finland (1993); France (2010); Germany (2014); Greece (1996); Hungary (2001); Ireland (1998); Italy (1992); Italy/Sicilia (2002); Latvia (2013); Lithuania (1998); Malta (1995); Netherlands (2015); Poland (2012); Portugal (1992); Portugal/Azores (1994); Romania (2011); Slovakia (2007); Slovenia (2003); Spain (2007); Sweden (1993); United Kingdom (1993); United Kingdom/England (1994); United Kingdom/Scotland (1994)


Justification (if necessary):
Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database (

HOST PLANT NĀ°1: Pisum sativum (PIBSX) for the Fodder plant seed sector.

Origin of the listing:
RNQP Questionnaire

Plants for planting:

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
Evaluation continues

4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):

A survey of commercial seeds samples in the UK showed its occurrence in >3% of seed stocks of peas. Seed transmission of D. dipsaci to the planted crop is well established and planting certified nematode-free seeds is recognized as an important control practice for this disease. In Germany, a tolerance level of five nematodes/300 seeds is used to establish the risk of transmission of the pathogen to seedlings. Also infestation frequency in pea seeds was evidently low, commonly below the tolerance level, except in 1987, where higher nematode density was found in two samples. Seed infection can be controlled by chemical or hot-water seed treatments and by seed health tests to remove infested stocks.
Nematode-infested soil is also an important inoculum source of D. dipsaci. The pests can also survive in plant debris and in Germany, one third of the sampled faba-bean fields were found to be infested by D. dipsaci, in densities beyond the tolerance threshold of 2-3 nematodes/250 cm3 soil but high densities were rare in non-faba bean fields.
D. dipsaci-infested weeds are also recognized as a potentially important inoculum source of this nematode.
Field control can be by rotation, soil solarization or resistant cultivars, however chemical treatments of soil are not economic for large areas (CABI, 2015).

5 - Economic impact:

Are there documented reports of any economic impact on the host?

The pest causes swelling and deformation of stem tissue or lesions, leaf and petiole necrosis and infected seeds are darker, distorted and smaller in size. Heavy infestations often kill the main shoots. D. dispaci induces local necrosis on pea. D. dipsaci sensu lato is one of the most devastating plant-parasitic nematodes, especially in temperate regions and without control, it can cause complete failure of host crops such as legumes (CABI, 2015). D. dipsaci causes severe decline of pea during wet seasons in the Meditteranean basin (Greco & Vito, 1994)

What is the likely economic impact of the pest irrespective of its infestation source in the absence of phytosanitary measures? (= official measures)

Is the economic impact due to the presence of the pest on the named host plant for planting, acceptable to the propagation and end user sectors concerned?

Is there unacceptable economic impact caused to other hosts (or the same host with a different intended use) produced at the same place of production due to the transfer of the pest from the named host plant for planting?

Not candidate

The impact is considered to be acceptable on this host plant.

Disqualified: impact is considered acceptable on this host plant.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:
Not recommended for the RNQP status.

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:
Not recommended for the RNQP status.

  • CABI (Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International) (2015). Online. Datasheets Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode). Invasive species compendium. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Available from;
  • EU COM (2016) Recommendation of the Working Group on the Annexes of the Council Directive 2000/29/EC ā€“ Section II ā€“ Listing of Harmful Organisms as regards the future listing of Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kuhn) Filipvejev;
  • Greco N & Vito M (1994) Nematodes of food legumes in the Mediterranean Basin. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO 24, 393-398;