Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region

NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (Tomato spotted wilt virus) (TSWV00)


Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):

Pest category:
Viruses and viroids

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Not relevant: Ornamental sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?
Not relevant

  • Candidate: Ornamental sector
Justification (if necessary):
Tomato spotted wilt tosopvirus (TSWV) is a single taxonomic entity (genus Tospovirus: family Bunyaviridae). In 2015 it was proposed to change the name of the virus from Tomato spotted wilt virus to Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (ICTV, 2015; Van Regenmortel et al., 2015). It has been ratified in 2016 for all the family of the Bunyaviridae.

2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:

List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Belgium (2014); Bulgaria (2013); Croatia (1999); Cyprus (2011); Czech Republic (2011); France (2013); Germany (2011); Greece (2002); Greece/Kriti (1994); Hungary (2012); Ireland (1993); Italy (2013); Italy/Sicilia (1994); Italy/Sardegna (2006); Lithuania (1998); Malta (2011); Netherlands (2015); Portugal (2011); Portugal/Madeira (2001); Romania (2011); Slovenia (2011); Spain (2016); Spain/Islas Canárias (2011); Spain/Islas Baleares (2011); Sweden (1998); United Kingdom (2011); United Kingdom/England (1995); United Kingdom/Scotland (1995); United Kingdom/Channel Islands (1994)


Justification (if necessary):
Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database ( This pest is a candidate for the RNQP status according to the IIA2AWG

HOST PLANT N°1: Cucumis melo (CUMME) for the Ornamental sector.

Origin of the listing:

Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting, other than seeds

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?
Evaluation continues

4 - Are the listed plants for planting the main* pathway for the "pest/host/intended use" combination? (*: significant compared to others):

Some Cucumis melo varieties are bred and grown for ornamental use though no specific information on them was obtained regarding TSWV, in a brief search.
TSWV has an extremely wide host range with more than 1 300 plants including agricultural crops, wild and weed species (Parrella et al., 2003; Peters, 2003).
Parella et al (2003) included Cucumis melo as host plant of TSWV in an “update” of TSWV-susceptible plant species with natural infections on the base of publication of Marchoux et al (2000). EFSA (2012) mentioned C. melo only when quoting Annex IIAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC for TSWV regulated plants. Cho et al. (1987) did not mentioned C. melo in the list of TSWV reservoir hosts associated with Hawaii’s vegetable growing regions. Melon is not reported as an important host plant of TSWV both globally (Kormelink et al., 1998; EFSA, 2012), and in individual countries like the Netherlands (Verhoeven and Roenhorst, 1998), Czech Republic (Mertelík et al., 1996), Bulgaria (Hristova et al., 2001), Australia (Persley et al, 2006), USA (Pappu et al., 2009).
TSWV is a systemic pathogen and, as such, it is very efficiently transmitted by all vegetative multiplication techniques (EFSA-PLH, 2012). The virus is transmitted by thrips in a persistent propagative mode (Ullman et al., 1993; Wijkamp et al., 1993). Because of the persistence of TSWV in the vectors, the virus can be carried by infected plant material but also by viruliferous thrips, which can be present on a consignment that is infected with TSVW or even on consignments of non-host plants of the virus. The interception reports in EUROPHYT (very few) indicate that TSWV is found mostly in consignments of ornamentals. No interceptions have been reported on Cucumis melo for the period 1996-2012. TSWV and viruliferous thrips are being transported in living planting material and will survive transport and storage as long as their hosts remain alive (EFSA-PLH, 2012). Plants for planting are considered to be a significant pathway compared to other pathways.

5 - Economic impact:

Are there documented reports of any economic impact on the host?

No details of any impact on ornamental melons (C. melo) could be found, though it is assumed they may react to infection in a similar way. TSWV is considered a very important pathogen of tomatoes, and severe losses have been encountered in crop production in Italy, Spain, Bulgaria and Greece. A similarly high impact on a range of other horticultural crops, such as pepper, potato, eggplant, lettuce and broad beans, is observed (EFSA, PLH, 2012). No information specifically related to impact on ornamental melon could be found.

What is the likely economic impact of the pest irrespective of its infestation source in the absence of phytosanitary measures? (= official measures)

Is the economic impact due to the presence of the pest on the named host plant for planting, acceptable to the propagation and end user sectors concerned?

Is there unacceptable economic impact caused to other hosts (or the same host with a different intended use) produced at the same place of production due to the transfer of the pest from the named host plant for planting?

Not candidate


Disqualified: limited evidence of economic impact on the host plant. Moreover the absence of visual symptoms on the traded material (current general ‘substantially free from’ requirement) is considered to be sufficient to prevent any indirect unacceptable economic impacts.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:

  • Cho JJ, Mau RFL, Mitchell WC, Gonzalves D, Yudin LS (1987) Host list of susceptible to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Research Extension Series 078, 1-10;
  • Daughtrey ML, Jones RK, Moyer JW, Daub ME & Baker JR (1997) Tospoviruses strike the greenhouse industry—INSV has become a major pathogen on flower crops. Plant Disease 81, 1220–1230;
  • EU COM (2016) Recommendation of the Working Group on the Annexes of the Council Directive 2000/29/EC – Section II – Listing of Harmful Organisms as regards the future listing of Tomato spotted wilt virus ;
  • EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (2012) Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. EFSA Journal 2012;10(12):3029. [64 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.3029. Available online:;
  • Hristova D, Karadjova O, Janculova M, Hainze C & Adam G (2001) A survey of Tospoviruses in Bulgaria. Journal of Phytopathology 149, 1 – 5;
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) (2015) Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names in the family Bunyaviridae;
  • Kormelink R, Peters D & Goldbach R (1998) Tospovirus genus. Association of Applied Biologists, Descriptions of Plant Viruses September 1998, 363, 1–14. Available from;
  • Marchoux G, Hostachy B, Gebre-Selassie K & Gognalons P (2000) Tomato spotted wilt virus: hôtes et méthodes de lutte.PHM - Revue Horticole 418: 46-52;
  • Mertelík J, Götzová B, Mokrá V (1996) Epidemiological aspects of tomato spotted wilt virus infection in the Czech republic. Acta Horticulturae 432: 368-375;
  • Pappu HR, Jones RAC & Jain RK (2009) Global status of tospovirus epidemics in diverse cropping systems: Successes achieved and challenges ahead. Virus Research, 141, 219–236;
  • Parrella G, Gognalons P, Gebre-Selassie K, Vovlas C and Marchoux G (2003) An update of the host range of tomato spotted wilt virus. Journal of Plant Pathology 85, 227–264;
  • Persley DM, Thomas JE & Sharman M (2006) Tospoviruses—an Australian perspective. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35, 161–180;
  • Van Regenmortel MH, Burke DS, Calisher CH, Dietzgen RG, Fauquet CM, Ghabrial SA, Jahrling PB, Johnson KM, Holbrook MR, Horzinek MC, Keil GM, Kuhn JH, Mahy BW, Martelli GP, Pringle C, Rybicki EP, Skern T, Tesh, RB, Wahl - Jensen V, Walker PJ & Weaver SC (2010) A proposal to change existing virus species names to non - Latinized binomials. Arch. Virol. 2010 155, 1909 - 1919;
  • Verhoeven TJ & Roenhorst JW (1994) Tomato spotted wilt virus: ecological aspects in ornamental crops in the Netherlands from 1989 up to 1991. Acta Horticulturae, 377, 175–182;
  • Verhoeven TJ & Roenhorst JW (1998) Occurrence of tospoviruses in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Tospoviruses and thrips in Floral and Vegetable Crops, Wageningen, Netherlands. May 2-6 1998, 77-80;