Regulated non-quarantine pest Project

An EU funded project for the benefit of the whole EPPO region

NAME OF THE ORGANISM: Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni) (XANTPR)


Name as submitted in the project specification (if different to the preferred name):

Pest category:

1- Identity of the pest/Level of taxonomic listing:

Is the organism clearly a single taxonomic entity and can it be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank?

Is the pest defined at the species level or lower?:

Can listing of the pest at a taxonomic level higher than species be supported by scientific reasons or can species be identified within the taxonomic rank which are the (main) pests of concern?
  • Not relevant: Ornamental sector
Is it justified that the pest is listed at a taxonomic rank below species level?

  • Candidate: Ornamental sector
Justification (if necessary):
Among cultivated plants, major hosts in which disease severity is commonly high, are: Prunus salicina, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. dulcis. Minor hosts, in which the disease may be less severe owing to a certain degree of tolerance, are: P. domestica, P. avium, P. cerasus, and P. laurocerasus. Other hosts are Japanese apricot (P. mume), Chinese wild peach (P. davidiana), P. buergeriana, P. crassipes and P. donarium. Rootstocks are, in general, resistant to the disease. P. spinosa (sloethorn or blackthorn), native to Europe and widely present throughout the EU, is not known to be a host or a reservoir plant (EFSA PLH, 2014).
For fruit and ornamental use: Experts proposed to continue the evaluation with a listing of the host at the genus level;
For forestry use: Prunus avium is the only Prunus species specifically listed in Annex I of EU Directive 1999/105, however evaluation continues taking into consideration other potential Prunus species.

2 – Status in the EU:
Is this pest already a quarantine pest for the whole EU?

Presence in the EU:

List of countries (EPPO Global Database):
Belgium (2015); France (2014); Germany (2014); Italy (2014); Italy/Sicilia (1940); Italy/Sardegna (1992); Netherlands (2015); Romania (1992); Slovenia (2014); Spain (2016); Spain/Islas Baleares (2014)


Justification (if necessary):
Data of the presence of this pest on the EU territory are available in EPPO Global Database (

HOST PLANT N°1: Prunus (1PRNG) for the Ornamental sector.

Origin of the listing:

Plants for planting:
Plants intended for planting, other than seeds

3 - Is the pest already listed in a PM4 standard on the concerned host plant?

Justification (if necessary):
Cherry, almond, apricot, peach and plum are already covered by a EPPO PM 4 Standard. These schemes are also suitable for the certification of ornamental Prunus.

Recommended for listing as an RNQP, based on EPPO PM 4 Standard. Measures need to take account of the fact that symptoms are easier to see all year round on evergreen species (P. lusitanica and P. laurocerasus) and absence of visual symptoms on the traded material (current general ‘substantially free from’ requirement) could be sufficient for these.

8 - Tolerance level:

Is there a need to change the Tolerance level:

Proposed Tolerance levels:
Zero tolerance based on visual examination.

9 - Risk management measures:

Is there a need to change the Risk management measure:

Proposed Risk management measure:
(a) Plants produced in an area known to be free from Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni;
(b) Site of production found free from Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni over the last complete growing season by visual inspection and any symptomatic plants in the immediate vicinity, and the neighbouring plants, rogued out and destroyed immediately, unless they are tested on the basis of a representative sample of symptomatic plants and it is shown in those tests that the symptoms are not caused by X. arboricola;
(c) No more than 2% of plants in the lot showing symptoms during inspections at appropriate times during the last growing season, and those plants and any symptomatic plants in the site of production and the immediate vicinity, and the neighbouring plants, rogued out and destroyed immediately unless they are tested on the basis of a representative sample of symptomatic plants and it is shown in those tests that the symptoms are not caused by X arboricola;
(d) For evergreen species only, the plants have been inspected before dispatch and found free from symptoms of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

Justification (if necessary):
Experts recommended extrapolating the risk management measures from the fruit sector, with an additional option for evergreen species. Its is not possible to visually distinguish between shot hole symptoms caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pruni and common Pseudomonas. Measures also cover any infested Prunus avium produced for the forestry sector within the same site of production.

  • EU COM (2014) Recommendation of the Working Group on the Annexes of the Council Directive 2000/29/EC – Section II – Listing of Harmful Organisms as regards the future listing of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (renamed Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni);
  • EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (2014) Scientific Opinion on pest categorisation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye. EFSA Journal 2014; 12(10): 3857, 25 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3857".;